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From the data observation of the Hubble telescope, Dark Matter theories suggest a missing component.


 The darkest matter in the universe is the most mysterious object of the universe, which also results in the presence of dark matter in the more clustered galaxy itself, according to researchers, it is found in clusters in galaxies. Astronomers have discovered from Hubble telescope data that there may be a missing ingredient in our cosmic recipe. Researchers have uncovered a discrepancy between theoretical models that make sense of how dark matter should be distributed among galaxy clusters, as well as observing dark matter hold over clusters.

Dark matter is not visible, because it does not interact with light, its presence is detected by gravity, One way astronomers can detect dark matter by measuring how its gravity distorts space, an effect called gravitational lensing. During the research, researchers found that how small-scale concentrations of dark matter in bunches produce gravitational lensing effects are 10 times stronger than expected. Evidence of this is based on unprecedented detailed observations of several massive galaxy clusters by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile.

The largest structures in the universe, composed of galaxies of individual clusters, are the largest repositories of the galaxy cluster Dark Matter. It is not only largely held together by the gravity of dark matter, but the individual cluster galaxies reunite themselves with dark matter, and this is the reason why dark matter in bunches is therefore distributed on both large and small scales. Are happening  Masoweri of the National Institute of Astrophysics and Space Science says that "computer simulations are ideal laboratories for understanding the universe in detail, what we can infer about the dark matter and the bright case by computer simulation of the universe. 

Priyamvada Natarajan of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, is one of the team's senior theorists who, she says, is a feature of the real universe, also, that we cannot capture the universe in our current theoretical model. Dark matter itself can indicate a difference in our current understanding of nature and its properties, because these exquisite data have allowed us to examine the detailed distribution of dark matter at the smallest scales.

The distribution of dark matter in bunches is caused by the bending of light, and is mapped through the gravitational lensing effect. Dark Matter's gravity amplifies and lightens from distant background objects, like a funhouse mirror, creating distortions of the same distant galaxy and sometimes multiple images. The higher the concentration of dark matter in a cluster, the more dramatically its light bends.

Some crisp images, taken by the Hubble telescope, combined with spectra from VLT to help the team create accurate, high-fidelity dark-matter maps. Researchers have identified dozens of multiplied, lensed, background galaxies. Researchers can also detect dark matter volume and distribution, by measuring lensing distortions.

The researchers say that we have three major galaxy clusters used in the analysis, such as MACS J1206.2-0847, MACS J0416.1-2403, and Abel S1063, two of which were part of the Hubble surveys: Frontier Fields  And with the cluster licensing and supernova survey Hubble (CLASH) programs. Researchers were surprised to see some images, as the Hubble images also revealed large-scale, small-scale arcs nesting within lens distortions and distorted images in the core of each cluster, where the largest galaxies reside.

According to the researchers, embedded lenses are formed by gravity of dense concentrations of dark matter associated with individual cluster galaxies, and this distribution of dark matter in the inner regions of individual galaxies is known to increase the overall lensing effect of the cluster. Researchers have added subsequent spectroscopic observations to the study by measuring the velocity of stars orbiting inside many of the cluster galaxies. Based on spectroscopic studies, Piero Rozetti, a team member at the University of Ferrara in Italy, stated that we were able to associate galaxies with each cluster and estimate their distances.

Pietro Bergamini, a member of the Astro-Observatory and Astronomy team in Bologna, Italy, says that the motion of stars gave us an estimate of the mass of each individual galaxy, including the amount of dark matter. The team also compared dark-matter maps with samples of simulated galaxy clusters with similar mass, located at the same distance as the observed clusters. When computer simulations were performed, it was observed that the clusters did not show the same level of dark-matter concentration at the smallest scale, the scales associated with different cluster galaxies seen in the universe.

NASA 2021 is about to launch its new Space telescope, NASA's planned Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will detect even more remote galaxies through gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters.  Observations through the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope can enlarge the sample of those clusters, allowing researchers to analyze dark-matter models to further test them.

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