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Astronomers have explored an active galaxy resembling a tif fighter using radio waves.



The explorers have observed an active galaxy, using radio waves to map the galaxy, in which they have found a familiar shape. During this reaction, researchers discovered an object, known as TXS 0128 + 554, researchers experienced two powerful bouts of activity in the last century.  TXS 0128 + 554 About five years ago, NASA's Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope showed that TXS 0128 + 554 (TXS 0128 for short) is a faint source of gamma rays, the highest light source  - Energy form. Scientists started using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory five years ago, and they have been watching the TXS 0128 + 554 very closely.

After Fermi's announcement, researchers zoomed in on the galaxy nearly a million times using VLBA's radio antennas, and its shape was charted over time. Matthew Lister, a professor of physics and astronomy at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, says that the first time I saw the result of TXS 0128 + 554, I immediately felt like 'Star Wars: Episode IV - A New  There is something like Darth Vader's TII fighter spacecraft from Hope ', Matthew Lister adds, that it was a fun surprise, but its presence on various radio frequencies has also helped us learn a lot, and believes  Is, that active galaxies can change dramatically over time scales of the decade.

The team led by Matthew Lister wrote a paper describing the findings, which was published on August 25 in The Astrophysical Journal, and is still available online. The researchers say TXS 0128, about 1 billion times more massive than the Sun's mass, is 500 million light-years away in the black hole's anchored constellation Cassopia, classified as an active galaxy.  , That all its stars do not keep track of the amount of light together.

As we know, the extra energy of an active galaxy contains a large amount of extra radio, X-ray and gamma-ray light, and scientists believe that this emission is near the central black hole of the galaxy  This arises from fields, due to gravity and frictional forces accumulating a vortex of gas and dust, and it is heated.

According to the researchers, in about one-tenth of the active galaxies in the Universe, a pair of jets is formed, it is a pair of jets that travel in opposite directions, it can be seen as high-energy particles traveling at the speed of light. Beams occur, and astronomers believe that these jets produce gamma rays, but in some cases, the collision with the tensecent intergalactic gas occurs and ultimately slows the external motion of the jet particles, Due to which the material starts flowing back towards the center of the galaxy.  It results in some broad areas, or lobes, that are filled with particles rapidly circulating around magnetic fields, and these particle interactions create bright radio emission.

As of now, we do not know how many active galaxies in the Universe, we know about the same number of galaxies, which are our neighboring galaxies, yet researchers have discovered more than 3,000 active galaxies, whereas Fermi  Using its large field telescope, it has identified more than 3,000 active galaxies, which researchers say it surveys the entire sky every three hours.  Researchers have aligned almost all of them to galaxies, so that when a jet points almost directly to Earth, its signals can be detected.  Of all the gamma rays that researchers have discovered, the TXS 0128 + 554 k is about 100,000 times less powerful than most, with researchers finding it to be relatively nearby, but in 2015 the firm switched to gamma-ray sources  Accumulated five years of data from the galaxy before reporting to.

Researchers have included the active galaxy in a long-running survey, a network of radio antennas operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  Researchers have provided a detailed map of the array's measurements at different radio frequencies, the TXS 0128, and the radio structure that the researchers have revealed extends about 35 light-years, and tilts about 50 degrees from our line of sight. happened. Such an angle means that the jets have not come directly upon us, and this may explain why the galaxy is so dim in gamma rays.  Daniel Heman, an astronomy professor at Dennison University, says that in this case, we are lucky, because the galaxy is angry from our perspective in such a way that light travels dozens of light years from distant lobes, which makes us closely  Reaches in comparison to light, which means that we are looking at the frontal lobe at the first point in its development. If the galaxy was aligned, if the jet and lobe were perpendicular to our line of sight, would all the light reach the Earth at the same time, and would we be able to see both sides at the same stage of evolution, which would be the reality  Are in. 

The use of galaxies in a clear shape depends on the radio frequency, such as at 2.3 GHz (GHz), about 21 times the maximum transmission frequency of FM radio, it looks like an amorphous drop, and the TIE fighter's figure at 6.6 GHz  Emerging, then, at 15.4 GHz, a clear difference in radio emission is seen between the galaxy's core and its lobes.  Lister and his team suspect the TXS 0128 to have a difference in activity, as the galaxy's jets began about 90 years ago, as seen from Earth, and then after about 50 years, the unrelated lobes were reversed.  Abandoned, and again about a decade ago, this jet has resumed, and emissions have been observed close to the core, what may be the reasons for the sudden onset of these active periods, and what is unclear.

As we know, radio emission also sheds light on the location of the galaxy's gamma-ray signal, and many theorists predicted that young, radio-bright active galaxies produce gamma rays when their jet difference is  - collide with gas, but in the case of TXS 0128, at least, lobe particles are unable to produce enough combined energy to generate detectable gamma rays, Lister's team believes, that the galaxy  The jets generate gamma rays closer to the core, as seen in most active galaxies.  The team of researchers have inspected the galaxy in X-rays using the moon, observing the galaxy to find evidence for a cocoon of ionized gas, although their measurements do not confirm the presence or absence of a cocoon  Can, but researchers have found evidence for such structures in other active galaxies, such as Cygnus A, observations from galaxies indicate that the core of the galaxy has a large amount of dust and gas, a highly inclined  Having corresponding angles.

Elizabeth Hayes, scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's Fermi Project, who says the galaxy reminds us of the importance of multilevel waves, and that looks at a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. "" Fermi, VLBA, and  Chandra each adds a layer to our growing picture of this object, and at the same time reveals his own wonder.

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