What is the strongest thing in this world? And the name of steel will come in our mind, because as far as we know, there is no steel stronger than this time. But some research has shown that the strongest object in this world is Graphene. Graphene which is used in pencil, graphite.
Why does physics believe that graphene is the strongest object. Graphene has a special set of properties that differentiates it from other allotropees of carbon, in proportion to its thickness, it is the strongest, and about 100 times stronger than steel. But still its density is dramatically lower than that of any steel, with a surfactic mass of 0.763 milligrams per square meter. It conducts heat and electricity very efficiently, and is almost transparent.
Scientists have given many theories about Graphene for decades, using Graphene, usually through pencils and other similar applications of graphite, inadvertently generating small amounts over centuries. Graphene was first introduced in 1962 by electron microscopes. As seen, graphene was studied while being supported on metal surfaces.
Generally Graphene is a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, a material with excellent mechanical, electronic and optical properties, Graphene is not suitable for magnetic applications anyway. Because carbon atoms do not have spin, this is not suitable for magnetic applications.
In the 1970s, international partners and Empa researchers together succeeded in predicting a unique nanography.Which conclusively demonstrates that carbon in very specific forms has magnetic properties, which may allow future spintronic applications.Depending on the shape and orientation of their edges, graphene nanostructures can have very different properties.
With colleagues at the Technical University in Dresden, the University of Alto in Finland, the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz, and the University of Bern, empa researchers have now succeeded in creating a nanographene with magnetic properties,These are electronics that work at room temperature.
Empa researchers have succeeded in creating a nanographene with magnetic properties, a breakthrough that may be a deciding component for spin-based. How is that possible? Demonstrating magnetism for carbon nanomaterials, graphene usually contains only carbon atoms, and magnetism is a property that it is rarely associated with carbon.
Carbon atoms in graphene are a single layer (monolayer), tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice, an allotment of carbon. In which each carbon atom has four neighbors, it alternately forms single or double bonds with each other. In such a single bond, one electron from each atom - a so-called valence electron - binds to its neighbor; And right there in a double bond, two electrons from each atom participate. Such alternating single and double bonds are known as the capule structure, according to this single double bond, an electron couple living in the same orbital must differ in its direction of rotation. According to the exclusion principle, the four quantities of two electrons of the same atom cannot be the same.
The closed shape enclosed by the six arms is called hexagon. In these structures of hexagons, one can never attract a single double bond pattern in which it meets the bonding requirements of the carbon atom. As a result, one or more electrons are forced to remain unpublished, and cannot form.
An electron moving around its axis creates a small magnetic field, which causes a magnetic moment. In this way, an orbital of an atom has two electrons with opposite spin, and these magnetic fields cancel each other. If an electron is alone in its orbital field, the magnetic moment remains, and this gives a measurable magnetic field result.
The bow tie-like structure that was predicted in 1970, known as Claire Goble, consists of two symmetric halves, constructed in such a way that one electron in each half is topologically frustrated. needed. If two electrons are coupled through the structure, they are antiferromagnetically coupled, causing their spins to be necessarily oriented in opposite directions, due to which, in the antiframomagnetic state, Clare's goblet "not" logic gate, Can act as.
If the spin direction reverses at the input, in this condition the output spin must also be forced to rotate, it is also possible to move to a ferromagnetic position where both are oriented along the same direction.When one of the electrons reverses its spin, in this condition the antiframomagnetic state must not spontaneously change to the ferromagnetic state in order to remain stable. And it is possible that the exchange coupling energy should be higher than the energy dissipation when it is operated at room temperature.
Future spintronic based on nanography can erroneously function at room temperature, and under that condition, room temperature stable magnetic carbon nanostructures have been the only theoretical construct. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in constructing such a structure for the first time, and have shown, the theory is consistent with reality.