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Scientists develop a kind of optical ruler, which can measure many nanoscale.

Scientists at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore have found a way to measure distance at the nanoscale, for example, one billionth of a nanometer — and use light in it.  As we understand as an example, a device that uses light to see objects, we can understand this by example, for example as we know, under the microscope, the laws of physics.  There is a fundamental limit on the basis of, and this is their resolving power.

For any shortest distance,optical devices have been used reliably,and in experimentation it has been found that the image is equal to half the wavelength of light, which we know as the "diffraction limit",Or is known.The same diffraction limit is several times larger than 400 nanometers, and it is about half a wavelength of the most near-infrared light.We can understand this from the examples, as we can about 250 times the width of a human hair (100 μm).its small. If we talk, scientists are interested in seeing many smaller objects such as viruses and nanoparticles, and they range in size from 10 to 100 nanometers, an optical resolution of 400 nanometers is insufficient.At the same time, nanometer-scale measurements have been made using indirect or non-optical methods,such as scanning electron microscopy for example, which are never possible, and can take longer to perform,and operate the same. For, it requires expensive equipment.

A new discovery describes a new optical method, published in a journal Science by NTU School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Professor Nikolay Jayaldev and Dr. Gangui Yuan.Which states that a nanometer can measure displacement that is measured directly over the shortest distance, using near infrared light.And their theoretical calculations indicate that we can measure the distance up to 1/4000 of the wavelength of light from an instrument based on this method, which is approximately equal to one atom in size.

This achievement of scientists has been accomplished by using a 100-nanometer thick gold film, cutting out more than 10,000 tiny slits, separating the laser light, and exploiting an optical phenomenon called "superosylation".It first arose in the 1980s from the concept of supersolidation, first from the quantum physics research of the Israeli physicist Yakir Aharonov, and later, the British Physical Science.Rtrani went Optics by Michael Berry, and also many fast oscillation would then test.But Suprscoleshn extended to many other areas, when compared to a light wave of sub-wavelength "light wave.

Scientists Dr Yuan and a postdoctoral fellow at Center for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT) under the Photonics Institute at NTU Singapore say the device is conceptually very simple. How it works, and how it works, and  This is a fairly precise pattern, in which slits are arranged. If there are two types of slits within the pattern, one will orient each other at right angles.  Ankjb a polarized laser light strikes the gold film, and therefore it makes an interference pattern, which is extremely insert the Hakisme much smaller number of small features, compared to the wavelength of light. The same scientists, then, produce polarized light scatter and two cross-polarized beams from the device of Zialudev and Yuan, a superosilitary "interference pattern" that has sharp phase variation, and it detects the phase of the suprasporatory region  For, it is a reference wave.  And it is, from the phase itself, a gradient for supersolidation, and it is possible to calculate its local wavevector ", because it is an extremely narrow width (400 times narrower than the diffraction limit), and is used as a high-resolution optical ruler.  Can be done in.

One obstacle scientists at NTU had to overcome was the understanding that the tiny supercoilation is not in the amplitude of the light wave, and it is seen in its phase.  The same scientists had to develop a number of special techniques for preparing a phase map of the light field, which can be compared to the intensity of laser light, produced by different polarization states.  This is a major improvement over previous attempts to use supercosillation, for optical measurements, says Professor Zhauldev. Professor Jhauldev is a co-director of The Photonics Institute of NTU.

Have been developed by others, have used a class of supercosillations, which are localized 'hot' analogs with many other intensities. The advantage of the same hot spots is that they are much easier to detect. Professor Jheludev who  The UK Institute of Optoelectronics Research at the University of Southampton serves as co-director, he says, adding that his discovery could potentially lead to applications in the industry  Many will be more.The team of scientists aims to use optical fibers, and to develop a compact version of the mechanism, to commercialize the technology as a type of ultra-precise optical ruler, which is beneficial for advanced manufacturing processes.  May be, for example, semi-conductor fabrication and optoelectronic devices.


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